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Monthly Archives: April 2020

Financial/Accounting/Income Tax Thoughts During This Period of COVID-19

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During 2008/2009, the Great Recession, we learned some things. When the economy is hurt, there are some things we can do to be better prepared, and there are some actions we can take to benefit from the financial stress. During those times, the banks took steps to reduce or close lines of credit and end banking relationships. If you feel this might be an issue for you, and you would like to have more cash, then consider drawing down on your line of credit to hold the cash. This will generally give you the opportunity to get more cash in your bank before the bank would reduce your line of credit. Now, I have not heard from anyone that they banks are doing this yet, but we are going through some financially challenging times. Each individual should consider if this strategy is a good strategy for them and weigh the costs of the interest expenses. Perhaps after a couple of months you can repay the line of credit.

Keep your accounting up to date, as the banks might want to check your financial statements to continue your leading relationship.

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Consider if you can benefit from any of the tax law updates, which we have written about. Did you have a net operating loss in 2018, and if so, contact us to discuss how you can get a refund. Were you limited in the amount of interest expense you could deduct in 2018? If so, contact us.

One item in the CARES Act that we did not write about, which was brought up by a client of ours, is that for 2020, the charitable deduction limitation is removed. The law previously stated that a taxpayer cannot take a charitable deduction in 2020 if the deduction exceeded 60% of their adjusted gross income (AGI), but with the CARES Act, that limitation has been removed. However, the requirements in general are that the donation must be in cash and typically must go to a 501(c)(3) charity. If you are interested in more information about this, please contact us so we can discuss the whole law and see if this could benefit you.

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Some other items to consider:

Due to the stock marketing value dropping, this might be an opportunity to do some estate and gift tax planning with reduced values of securities. Contact us to discuss if you are interested.

If your business revenues have dropped, then most likely the value of your business has probably been reduced. This can provide an option to provide key employees with some equity participation at a reduced value if that will benefit the company. Again, each business is unique, so contact us to discuss.

We are hoping that the economy will be opening back up soon throughout the entire country. We are here to help, so contact us if you need our assistance.

Preparing for Loan Forgiveness Under the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP)

In preparing for receipt of any funds from the Paycheck Protection Program Loan (PPPL), one should consider setting up a separate bank account to deposit the PPPL funds in and then to pay out expenses that qualify for loan forgiveness. First, let’s review section 1106 Loan Forgiveness under the CARES Act. It states, Borrower shall be eligible for loan forgiveness equal to the amount spent by borrower during an 8-week period after the origination date of the loan on:

  1. payroll costs (wages up to $100,000 annually per employee, health insurance, and some state taxes)
  2. interest payment on mortgages incurred prior to February 15, 2020,
  3. payment of rent on any lease in force prior to February 15, 2020 and;
  4. payment on any utilities for which service began before February 15, 2020.

Recent updates also stated that 75% or more of the loan forgiveness needs to be for payroll. So, our suggestion is to open a bank account specifically for the PPPL proceeds and qualified expenses listed above. They have the qualified expenses listed above paid out of that account, and hopefully this process will make is easier for banks to see the qualified expenses were paid using the PPPL proceeds and hopefully allow for an easy process for the loan forgiveness. This PPPL process has been challenging for more applicants, so perhaps this separate bank account will make it easier is requesting for loan forgiveness in the future. As long as the business sets up the bank account early and requests checks, then we would expect these qualified expenses can be paid out of this designated account.

Please note this is not a full explanation of the CARES Act or the PPPL program.  For more information please review our previous posts and speak with your tax advisor.

Please contact us if you have any questions.

UPDATE: Loan Assistance EIDL

SBA has stopped accepting EIDL applications based on Lapse in Appropriations. Seems like SBA ran out of funding. You can read about it at https://lnkd.in/d92qPPW

We feel each affected individual should contact their Congress person and request they approve additional funding without non-coronavirus items. There are discussions of additional funding, but we understand that there are political issues that include trying to add in non-coronavirus items which is slowing down the relief.

IRS provides resources to check for your economic assistance check at: https://lnkd.in/eGznizg

COVID-19: IRS announces more relief and details

In the midst of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, Americans are focusing on their health and financial well-being. To help with the impact facing many people, the government has provided a range of relief. Here are some new announcements made by the IRS.

More deadlines extended

As you probably know, the IRS postponed the due dates for certain federal income tax payments — but not all of them. New guidance now expands on the filing and payment relief for individuals, estates, corporations and others.

Under IRS Notice 2020-23, nearly all tax payments and filings that would otherwise be due between April 1 and July 15, 2020, are now postponed to July 15, 2020. Most importantly, this would include any fiscal year tax returns due between those dates and any estimated tax payments due between those dates, such as the June 15 estimated tax payment deadline for individual taxpayers.

Economic Impact Payments for nonfilers

You have also likely heard about the cash payments the federal government is making to individuals under certain income thresholds. The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act will provide an eligible individual with a cash payment equal to the sum of: $1,200 ($2,400 for eligible married couples filing jointly) plus $500 for each qualifying child. Eligibility is based on adjusted gross income (AGI).

On its Twitter account, the IRS announced that it deposited the first Economic Impact Payments into taxpayers’ bank accounts on April 11. “We know many people are anxious to get their payments; we’ll continue issuing them as fast as we can,” the tax agency added.

The IRS has announced additional details about these payments:

  • “Eligible taxpayers who filed tax returns for 2019 or 2018 will receive the payments automatically,” the IRS stated. Automatic payments will also go out to those people receiving Social Security retirement, survivors or disability benefits and Railroad Retirement benefits.
  • There’s a new online tool on the IRS website for people who didn’t file a 2018 or 2019 federal tax return because they didn’t have enough income or otherwise weren’t required to file. These people can provide the IRS with basic information (Social Security number, name, address and dependents) so they can receive their payments. You can access the tool here: https://bit.ly/2JXBOvM

This only describes new details in a couple of the COVID-19 assistance provisions. Members of Congress are discussing another relief package so additional help may be on the way. We’ll keep you updated. Contact us if you have tax or financial questions during this challenging time.

The IRS announces new COVID-19-related assistance for taxpayers

The IRS and the U.S. Department of Treasury have announced new relief for federal taxpayers affected by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The IRS had already extended certain deadlines to file and pay federal income taxes and estimated tax payments due April 15, 2020, without incurring late filing penalties, late payment penalties or interest. The additional relief, outlined in Notice 2020-23, applies to a wider variety of tax filers. The IRS also has announced new tools for taxpayers expecting Economic Impact Payments (also known as “recovery rebates”).

The extensions in a nutshell

The extensions apply to taxpayers, including Americans living and working abroad, with filing or payment deadlines on or after April 1, 2020, and before July 15, 2020. Covered tax forms and payments include:

  • Individual income tax payments and returns,
  • Calendar-year or fiscal-year corporate income tax payments and returns,
  • Calendar-year or fiscal-year partnership return filings,
  • Estate and trust income tax payments and returns,
  • Gift and generation-skipping transfer tax payments and returns, and
  • Tax-exempt organizations’ payments and returns.

The due dates for these payments and returns are automatically postponed to July 15, 2020. Taxpayers don’t need to contact the IRS, file any extension forms, or send letters or other documents to take advantage of the extensions. The accrual of interest, penalties and additions to tax for failure to file or pay will be suspended from April 1, 2020, to July 15, 2020, resuming on July 16, 2020.

The IRS is also extending the earlier relief regarding quarterly estimated tax payments. As of now, the payments ordinarily due on both April 15 and June 15 aren’t due until July 15. This applies to individual and businesses that must make estimated tax payments.

Extensions for other time-sensitive actions

Notably, the IRS is giving taxpayers extra time to perform specified other time-sensitive actions originally due to be performed on or after April 1, 2020, and before July 15, 2020. Those include filing petitions with the U.S. Tax Court or seeking review of a Tax Court decision, filing claims for tax credits or refunds, and filing a lawsuit based on a tax credit or refund claim. Taxpayers generally have three years to claim refunds, so the deadline for 2016 refunds otherwise would be April 15, 2020 (three years after the April 2017 filing date for 2016 tax returns).

Unfortunately for some taxpayers, the notice also provides the IRS with additional time to perform certain time-sensitive acts. It allows a 30-day postponement if the last date for performance of an action is on or after April 6, 2020, and before July 15, 2020. This extension could affect taxpayers who are currently under IRS examination, whose cases are with the Independent Office Appeals or who file amended returns or submit payments for a tax for which the assessment period would expire in that time period.

Economic Impact Payment tools

On April 10, 2020, the day after announcing the deadline extensions, the IRS launched a new online tool allowing quick registration for Economic Impact Payments for individuals who don’t normally file an income tax return. The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act) provides for payments of up to $1,200 for eligible individuals or $2,400 for married couples, plus $500 for each qualifying child. Eligible taxpayers who filed tax returns for 2019 or 2018 will receive the payments automatically.

The non-filer tool is intended for people who didn’t file a tax return for 2018 or 2019 and who don’t receive Social Security retirement, survivors or disability benefits. It’s available at IRS.gov.

The IRS says it expects to launch another tool, called “Get My Payment,” by April 17. It will provide taxpayers with information on the status of their payments, including the date payments are scheduled to be deposited in their bank accounts or mailed to them. Eligible taxpayers also will be able to provide their bank account information to expedite payment, assuming the payment hasn’t already been scheduled for delivery.

Update: The IRS has released the stimulus payment tracker early. https://www.irs.gov/coronavirus/get-my-payment

Stay tuned

The IRS, Department of Treasury, Congress and the Trump administration continue to work on new forms of relief to help individuals and businesses cope with the effects of the COVID-19 crisis. Turn to us for all of the latest developments and available opportunities.

Mini Update – CARES Act

April 8, 2020

Dear Clients and Friends,

The IRS and the Tax Foundation have released some facts, and Q&A regarding the
CARES Act and Employee Retention Credits. Please note, we have provided some write
ups about application of the CARES Act specific to our client base, but some of you may
have additional questions. Please feel free to contact us at
advisors@verticaladvisors.com and consider reviewing these sites.

IRS FAQ: Employee Retention Credit under the CARES Act:
https://www.irs.gov/newsroom/faqs-employee-retention-credit-under-the-cares-act

Tax Foundation FAQ: The CARES Act: https://taxfoundation.org/federal-coronavirus-relief-bill-cares-act/

Warmest Regards,

Peter DeGregori
Managing Partner

Tax rule changes for improvements to interior parts of nonresidential buildings

Dear Clients & Friends,

This letter is to alert you to a beneficial change in the tax rules for many improvements to interior parts of nonresidential buildings (”qualified improvement property” or ”QIP”). You may recall that following the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (”TCJA”), any QIP placed in service after Dec. 31, 2017 was not considered to be eligible for 100% bonus depreciation. Therefore, the cost of QIP had to be deducted over a 39-year period instead of entirely in the year the QIP was placed in service. That result was due to an inadvertent drafting error by Congress.

The 2020 Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (”CARES Act”) was signed into law on March 27, 2020. The CARES Act corrects the TCJA drafting error for QIP. Thus, most businesses are now allowed to claim 100% bonus depreciation for QIP, if certain other requirements are met. What also is helpful is that the correction is retroactive, and it reaches back to apply to any QIP placed in service after Dec. 31, 2017. Unfortunately, improvements related to the enlargement of a building, any elevator or escalator, or the internal structural framework continue to be outside of the definition of QIP.

In the current business climate, you may not be in a position to undertake new capital expenditures, even if needed as a practical matter and even if the substitution of 100% bonus depreciation for a 39-year depreciation period significantly lowers the true cost of QIP. But it’s good to know that when you are ready to undertake qualifying improvements, the generous subsidy of 100% bonus depreciation will be available.

And, the retroactive effect of the CARES Act presents favorable opportunities for qualifying expenditures you’ve already made. We can revisit and add to documentation that you’ve already provided me to identify QIP expenditures.

For not-yet-filed returns, we can simply reflect the favorable treatment for QIP on the return.

If you’ve filed returns that didn’t claim 100% bonus depreciation for what may prove to be QIP, we can investigate based on available documentation as discussed above. If there is QIP that was in fact eligible for 100% bonus depreciation, note that IRS has, for past retroactive favorable depreciation changes, provided taxpayers with detailed guidance for how the benefit is claimed. That is, IRS clarified how much flexibility taxpayers have in choosing between a one-time downward adjustment to income on their current returns or an amendment to the return for the year the QIP was placed in service.

If you had QIP in 2018, and you wish to amend the tax return to take the accelerated depreciation, we are waiting for guidance from the IRS to determine the method for the amendment.  Typically bonus deprecation was required unless a taxpayer elected out.  On the tax returns we prepared, we typically would have depreciated the QIP based on the law, which didn’t allow bonus deprecation and thus we typically wouldn’t have elected out of bonus depreciation.  In addition, if you desire to amend, we will need to determine, how many returns will need to be amended.

If you would like us to amend your tax return, please let us know and we will schedule the return for amendment when we receive guidance from the IRS.  We will monitor what your options are as anticipated IRS guidance for the QIP correction is released.

If you have any questions about the news shared above, or about how you can take advantage of it, please do not hesitate to contact us.

© 2020 Vertical Advisors LLP

Update 5: Tax and Financial Updates due to the Coronavirus

 

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The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis has touched so many lives, with both illnesses and hardships. In response to this crisis, our office is working remotely on all accounting and tax projects. The best method to contact us is to email us at advisors@verticaladvisors.com. We are focused on staying up to date on the tax, accounting and finance updates to assist everyone with these challenges. The final Coronavirus bill that was signed by President Trump on March 27, 2020 is H.R. 748 called the CARES Act. This passed bill was different than the Senate bill I wrote about on March 25, 2020. Some provisions are the same or similar.

Remember this CARES Act bill was written quickly and all explanations of various scenarios has not been provided yet. Not to mention, various groups, professionals, and industries have asked many questions of the Treasury and SBA for additional guidance. Based on new information reviewed and the discussions with our clients, I’m providing an update.

  1. Section 1102 Paycheck Protection Program Loans (PPP):
    1. This is a section 7(a) SBA loan
    2. VA Comment: Supposed to be a streamline process. When I speak with bankers, they advise that they are still waiting for guidance from SBA. See attached the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Coronavirus Emergency Loan Checklist.
    3. VA Update: look at https://home.treasury.gov/system/files/136/PPP–Fact-Sheet.pdf for information about the PPP loans.
      1. Apparently, small businesses can apply starting April 3, 2020. However, banks need to be prepared. Most banks have sent out emails to their customer to begin compiling information regarding payroll, and health care costs.
      2. Starting April 10, 2020, independent contractors and self-employed individuals can apply.
        1. We are assuming the banks will want to look at and/or have the net self-employed income from your 2019 tax return or financial statements, and they may ask for 1099’s.
  1. VA Update: Based on additional information received from tax discussions, it seems as if a taxpayer can apply for BOTH a PPL and an EIDL, however, if they apply for both, the EIDL can’t be used for payroll, and the PPL is supposed to be used for payroll.
    1. Some businesses may need more money than just the PPL, so the EIDL will be required. Loans under $250,000 seems to require less information and no personal guarantee. 
  2. Government guarantees 100% of the loan through December 31, 2020
    1. Guarantee drops to 75% for loans exceeding $150,000 and
    2. 85% for loans equal to or less than $150,000.
  • VA Comments: The Federal loan guarantee reduces at 12/31/2020, as I would expect that large portions of loans will be forgiven for payroll before 12/31/2020. 
  1. Eligible businesses are small business (500 or less of employees), nonprofit, veteran’s organization or tribal businesses.
    1. Includes sole-proprietors, independent contractors, and self-employed individuals.
  2. VA Comment: Seems like most every business has been negatively affected from COVID-19 and if a business has payroll, they will apply for the PPL.

 

  1. How to Calculate the Loan Amount / Maximum Loan Amount:
    1. In Summary, average monthly payroll from 2019 multiplied by 2.5.
    2. Sum of average total monthly payment by the applicant for payroll costs incurred during the 1-year period before the date on which the loan is made.
  • VA Update: The current PPL application, just asks for “payroll costs” and the form doesn’t provide a definition of “payroll costs”, so we are suggesting looking at the summary of the bill that defines “payroll costs”. However, we have seen the banks asking for supporting information about “payroll costs”. These items are:
    1. 2019 Payroll, including the last 12 months
    2. 2019 Employees – 1099’s for 2019 employees and independent contractors that would otherwise be an employee of your business (Note: Do NOT include 1099s for services)
    3. Health care costs. All insurance premiums paid by the business owner under a group health plan.
    4. Retirement – your company retirement plan funding paid by the company.
  1. Some banks, like Bank of America, have stated that they are currently only going to provide PPL’s for customers that have deposit and lending relationships.

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  1. VA Update: There have been some questions regarding if payments to independent contractors are considered “payroll costs”. In reading the CARES Section by Section explanation, the bill itself, and listening to other tax advisors, we believe the “payroll costs” includes payments to independent contractors (IC) which are really like employees. This could mean an IC that doesn’t work for anyone else. However, in reading bank instructions for the PPP loans, and the SBA guidance recently released, and specifically the loan forgiveness, the IC expenses seems to be excluded from the “Payroll Costs” explanation. So, the PPP loan application based on the lender’s explanation of payroll costs, and SBA’s recently released explanations need to NOT be included in “payroll costs” especially for the loan forgiveness calculation. Perhaps this is an SBA interpretation as they want to minimize any double dipping. The IC can request financial assistance from the PPP, as well. Please be careful to make sure the calculation is done correctly.

 

    1. You can view the most recent SBA PPPL recently released guidance at https://content.sba.gov/sites/default/files/2020-04/PPP–IFRN%20FINAL.pdf
    2. Payroll Costs as defined in the bill.
      1. Payroll Costs Included:
        1. Salary, wage, commission, or similar compensation (not to exceed $100,000. So, if an employee earns $150,000 a year, the company can only use $100,000 a year for the calculation.)
        2. Payment of cash tip or equivalent
  • Payment for vacation, parental family, medical or sick leave
  1. Allowance for dismissal or separation
  2. Payment required for the provision of group health care benefits including insurance premiums.
  3. Payment of any retirement benefits; or
  • Payment of State or local tax assessed on the compensation of employees and
  1. Payroll can’t exceed more than $100,000 a year.
    1. Self-employed , Sole Proprietor.
      1. The sum of payments of any compensation to or income of a sole proprietor or independent contractor that is wage, commission, income, net earnings from self-employment that isn’t more then $100,000.
      2. VA Comments: If you’re self-employed and you pay yourself with draws, then the banks will probably want to see 2019 1099-MISC and various expenses from your business. If you have employees, then you would calculate as discussed above. 
    2. Excluded Payroll Costs:
      1. An annual salary over $100,000 / year.
      2. Payroll taxes
    3. If a seasonal employer, there is an alternative calculation for an average 12-week period from February 15, 2019 and ending June 30, 2019.
    4. Multiplied by 2.5. NOT to Exceed $10MM
    5. VA Example: If average monthly payroll was $100,000, then multiple by 2.5 = $250,000.
    6. If the business was not in business from February 15, 2019 to June 30, 2019, there is another calculation.
    7. VA Comment: This loan calculation isn’t as rich as the senate proposed bill which was multiplied by 4. Also, the loan doesn’t seem to include payroll taxes for the employee or employer, so the loan seems to be just the net payroll. Not sure this will be a large enough loan for some small business. 

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  1. Waives affiliation rules for businesses in hospitality and restaurant industries franchise.
    1. VA Comment: This means that restaurant chains that have over 500 employees can treat each location has an individual borrow and they don’t need to consolidate.
  2. Defines covered loan period as beginning on February 15, 2020 and ending on June 30, 2020.
  3. Established the maximum 7(a) loan amount to $10MM through December 31, 2020 and provides a formula by which the loan amount is tied to payroll costs incurred by the business to determine the size of the loan.
  4. Allowable use of the loan includes payroll support, such as employee salaries, paid sick or medical leave, insurance premiums, and mortgage, rent, and utility payments.
  5. Provides delegated authority which is the ability for lenders to make determination on borrowers eligibility and creditworthiness without going through all SBA’s channels to all current 7(a) lenders who make these loans to small business and provides the same authority to lenders who join the program and make these loans.
  6. Requires eligible borrowers to make a good faith certification that the loan is necessary due to the uncertainty of current economic conditions caused by COVID -19; they will use the funds to retain workers and maintain payroll. Lease and utility payments; and are not receiving duplicative funds for the same uses from another SBA program.
  7. Waives both borrower and lender fees for participation in the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP).
  8. Waives the credit elsewhere test for funds provided under this program.
  9. Waives collateral and personal guarantee requirements under this program.
  10. Any portion of the loan Not used for forgiveness purposes, the remaining loan balance will have a maturity of not more than 10 years, and the guarantee for that portion of the loan will remain intact.
  11. Maximum interest rate will be 4%.
  12. No prepayment fees.
  13. Allows complete deferment of 7(a) loan payments for at least six months and no more than a year.
  14. Increases SBA Express loan from $350,000 to $1MM through December 31, 2020.
  15. If head count reduces 25% or more, it will hurt the loan forgiveness, or make the loan not forgiven at all.

 

  1. Section 1106 Loan Forgiveness:
    1. Borrower shall be eligible for loan forgiveness equal to the amount spent by borrower during an 8 week period after the origination date of the loan on payroll costs, interest payment on any mortgage incurred prior to February 15, 2020, payment of rent on any lease in force prior to February 15, 2020, and payment on any utility for which service began before February 15, 2020.
      1. VA Update: Please review your lender’s application and explanation of “payroll costs”. Just recently, SBA issued additional guidance that independent contractor costs, even if they are treated like employees are NOT included in the “Payroll Costs”. This recent SBA guidance is different from our interpretation of the CARES Act bill. If you are considering a PPL to include IC expenses, at this time, we don’t feel it can be included in “payroll costs”.
    2. The loan forgiveness seems to be only for PPL / PPP loans.
    3. Amount forgiven may not exceed the principal amount of the loan.
    4. Eligible payroll costs do not include compensation above $100,000 in wages.
    5. The amount forgiven will be reduced proportionally by any reduction in employees retained compared to the prior year and reduced by the reduction in pay of any employee beyond 25% of their prior year compensation.
    6. Loan forgiveness / cancellation will not be included in borrower’s taxable income.
    7. VA Update: We are reading that Treasury is now stating that 75% or more of the loan forgiveness needs to be for payroll. Thus, no more than 25% of the loan forgiveness can be for non-payroll.  This is an example of the SBA generating rules which are NOT part of the legislated CARES Act bill. 
  2. Section 1110 Emergency EIDL (Economic Injury Disaster Loan) Grant:
    1. Allocated $10B in funding for EIDL.
    2. Provides an advance of $10,000 to small business and non-profits that apply for SBA EIDL loans within three days of applying for the loan.
    3. Expands eligibility for access to EIDL’s to include tribal business, cooperatives and ESOP’s with fewer than 500 employees or any individual operating as a sole proprietor or independent contractor during the covered period (January 31, 2020 to December 31, 2020. Private non-profits are also eligible for both grants and EIDL’s.
    4. EIDL’s are loans up to $2MM that carry interest rates up to 3.75% for companies and up to 2.75% for nonprofits as well as principal and interest deferment up to 4 years.
    5. The loans may be used for expenses that could have been met had the disaster not occurred, including payroll and other operating expenses.
    6. The EIDL grant does not need to be repaid, even if the grantee is subsequently denied an EIDL.
    7. It may be used to provide paid sick leave to employees, maintain payroll, meet increased production costs due to supply chain disruption or pay business obligations, including debts, rent and mortgage payments.
      1. VA Update: If a business needs more money than they can get from the PPL, then they can apply for an EIDL for items other than payroll which the PPL would be used for.
    8. Eligible grant recipients must have been in operation on January 31, 2020.
    9. The business that received an EIDL between January 31, 2020 and June 30, 2020 as a result of COVID-19 disaster declaration, is eligible to apply for a PPP loan, or the business may refinance their EIDL into a PPP loan.
    10. Typically, the $10,000 grant would be subtracted from the amount forgiven in the payroll protection plan.
    11. Waived personal guarantee on advances and loans not exceeding $200,000.
    12. The approval should be based on solely on the credit score of the applicant and no requirement for tax returns or tax return transcripts.
    13. VA Update: For loans over $250,000, there seems to be more underwriting requirements. May require financial statements, and tax returns.  However, we haven’t heard or seen if these rules are being applied. 

Most of the financial assistance offered through the first bill called, HR 6201, FAMILIES FIRST CORONRAVIRUS RESPONSE ACT (discussed on our previous memo), and the CARES Act S. 3548 which concluded as HR 748 was included in my discussion below.

The tax and financial laws are changing daily, therefore I marked this memo with “V5” (version 5) on my memo above. There are various other social service updates, but our memos will focus mainly on finance, business and tax updates.

 

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Highlights of the PROPOSED SENATE BILL S 3548, CORONAVIRUS AID, RELIEF AND ECONOMIC SECURITY ACT OR THE CARES ACT. March 19, 2020. This bill has NOT been passed in the Senate at this time, so it can change, and then the bill would need to go to the House and to the President. You can view the at https://www.congress.gov, search for HR 748.

    1. Businesses & Other Employers:
      1. Retention payroll tax credit for eligible employers that continue to pay employee wages while their operations are fully or partially suspended as a result of certain COVID-19 related government orders. A 50% refundable payroll tax credit on wages paid up to $10,000 during the crisis. The credit is available for employees retained by not currently working due to the crises for firms with more than 100 employees and for all employee wages for firms with 100 or fewer employees.
      2. Delayed Employer-side Social Security payroll tax payments may be delayed until January 1, 2021 with 50% owned on December 31, 2021 and the other half due on December 31, 2022. Deferral of employer portion of payments for certain payroll taxes.
      3. Net Operating Losses: Modification of net operating loss (NOL) and limitation rules. Will allow most NOL’s incurred in 2018, 2019, and 2020 to carry them back for refunds to 5 years. This carry back law was exempt for tax years beginning 2018 under the TCJA, but the CARE Act reverses it. Due to this financial crisis they are allowing NOL carry backs for these periods to be carried back. The Act also removed the 80% utilization of NOL’s for a carry forward, meaning an NOL could only reduce taxable income by 80%.
      4. Business Interest Deduction: Modification of the deduction limitation on business interest rules of IRC section 163(j). The law temporarily changes the business interest deduction limit from 30% to 50% for tax years 2019 and 2020.
      5. Qualified improvement property technical correction, allowing qualifying interior improvements of buildings to be immediately expensed (bonus depreciation or Section 179) rather than depreciated over 15 years for 2018 and future.
      6. Payroll tax credit for eligible employers up to 50% refundable payroll tax credit on wages paid up to $10,000 during the crisis. The credit would be available to employers whose business were disrupted and retained employees, but they were not able to work. Employers with more than 100 employees and under 100 employees have slightly different calculations.
      7. Business Loss Limitation Revision: For years after 12/31/2017, the business loss limitation is suspended. Previously, business losses couldn’t be used to offset non-business income (like wages, investment income) over $250,000 for individuals or $500,000 for married filing jointly.
        1. VA Comments: For individuals that have business losses, and perhaps real estate losses from being a real estate professional, this law change may make it desirable to amend the 2018 tax return. 
      8. Individuals:
        1. Recovery rebates of up to $1,200 for single and $2,400 for married couples filing jointly, plus $500 per qualifying child. Phaseouts of the rebates are based on adjusted gross income (AGI) starting at $75k for single, and $150k for married couples.
          1. The rebates phase out at $99,999 for single and $199,000.
        2. Expansion of unemployment benefits, including self-employed, and gig-economy workers. Unemployment insurance to include an additional $600 / week for an additional 13 weeks.
        3. Waiver of the 10% penalty for COVID-19 related early distributions from IRAs, 401K and other retirement plans. However, taxability of the distribution will need to be considered.
        4. Exclusion of certain employer payments of student loans up to $5,250 will not be treated as taxable income to the employee.
        5. Temporary Relief Federal Student Loan: Deferral of student loan payments on principal and interest for 6 months through September 30, 2020.
      9. Other Items:
        1. Forbearance of Residential Mortgage Loan Payments (section 4023): Provides up to 90 days of forbearance for multifamily borrowers with a federally backed multifamily mortgage loan who have experienced a financial hardship. Borrowers receiving forbearance may not evict or charge late fees to tenants for the duration of the forbearance period.
          1. Applicable mortgages include loans to real property designed for 5 or more families that are purchased, insured, or assisted by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, or HUD.

 

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  1. Additional Information regarding HR 748 CARES ACT ,
    1. Relief for Individuals, Families, and Businesses. Rebates and Other individual Provisions.
      1. Eligible individuals shall be allowed as credit against the tax for the first taxable year beginning in 2020 an amount equal to the lesser of:
        1. Net income tax liability, or
        2. $1,200 ($2,400 in the case of joint returns)
          1. The credit should not be less than $600
          2. $500 per qualifying children
        3. Eligible individuals are based on adjusted gross income (AGI) of
          1. $75,000 and $150,000 in the case of a joint return. Once a taxpayer AGI is either $75k or $150k the credit begins to be reduced and phased out.  The phase out is $99k and $198k.
        4. Delay in filing deadlines. In the case for returns for tax year 2019, due dates for April 15, 2020, are delayed to July 15, 2020. This isn’t in the HR 748 bill, but it is noted in IRS Notice 2020-18. An extension is not required. There is an automatic extension till July 15, 2020. However, if the tax return can’t be filed by July 15, 2020, an extension will need to be filed.
          1. This means that IRA, HAS and MSA contributions are extended to July 15, 2020 also.
        5. Individual ES Payments: Different from the Senate bill, 1st quarter estimated tax payments are delayed and due on July 15, 2020. 2nd quarter estimated tax payments are still due on June 15, 2020.  This is stated on IRS Notice 2020-18 and Notice 2020-20.
          1. You can read about these due date extensions at: https://www.irs.gov/newsroom/filing-and-payment-deadlines-questions-and-answers
  1. Retirement Accounts: Early withdrawal penalties under IRC section 72(t) which is typically 10% for Federal and then some states add a lower penalty are waived if the early distributions are $100,000 or under.
    1. Amounts distributed may be paid back. There is also a provision that allows taxpayers that took early distributions to make one or more contributions over a three-year period to contribute up to the amount of distributions they took.
    2. Income inclusion of premature distribution. A taxpayer can spread the taxability of the premature distribution over 3 years.
  2. Loans from retirement plans: The bill allows for an increase in loans and not to be treated as distributions. The loan amount is increased from $50,000 to $100,000.
    1. Loan repayments will be delayed by 1 year.
  3. Charitable Contributions: The allowance to deduct more charitable donations have been increased for both individuals and Corporations.
    1. VA Comments: Seems as if the individual 30% / 50% AGI limitation is temporary suspended. The 10% limitation for C Corporations seem to be increased to 25%.   
  4. Student Loan Temporary Relief: The bill states the Secretary shall suspend all payments due for loans under part D of title IV for Higher Education Act of 1965 for 3 months.
  1. Business Provisions:
    1. C Corporation estimated tax payments. Delay of estimated tax payments for Corporations. Like individuals, the required estimated tax payments for C Corporation is delayed till July 15, 2020.
    2. Delay in Payment of Employer Payroll Taxes. The bill states that employers can delay payment of the employer portion of payroll taxes till December 31, 2021 for 50% of the deferral and the balance due on December 31, 2022. This also applies to the estimated payroll deposits.
      1. VA Comment: If a small business is going to request and receive a loan for payroll and overhead, this deferral might not be necessary. If a defer is desired, a liability should be posted on the companies’ financial statements.
    3. Net Operating Loss (NOL) Carrybacks: The NOL carry back was removed for tax years after 12/31/2017. This bill will allow NOL’s generated from year 2018, 2019, and 2020 to carry back and request a refund for up to a 5 year carry back period. The 80% limitation is removed also.
      1. VA Comment: If you incurred a loss in 2018 or 2019, or expect a loss in 2020, please get us the information and quickly as possible so we can begin preparation of a NOL carryback. If your tax return had qualified improvement property and the return couldn’t take the deduction, this new bill corrects that prior error and that deduction might generate a taxable loss for a NOL carryback. 
    4. A taxpayer may elect out of the 5-year NOL carry back. If elected, it can’t be changed. It is irrevocable.
      1. VA Comment: For tax returns with NOL’s for 2018 or 2019 that have been filed, the return needs to be amended within 120 days from the enactment of this bill regarding the NOL carryback provision.
    5. Loss limitation for taxpayers other than Corporations: IRC section 461(l)(2) was added by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 and was effective for tax years 2018 to 2025 which disallowed any excess business loss for a non-corporate taxpayer. Generally, the law prohibited business losses to only be deducted against no more than $250,000 / $500,000 of non-business income. Any non-deductible business loss was carried forward. The bill removes those limits from being implemented till December 31, 2020 (previously applied on December 31, 2017).
      1. VA Comment: We know this loss limitation occurred with some of our clients, and we will have to review affected taxpayers to ask them if they want us to amend their tax returns. The IRS will need to provide guidance on the amendment process.

 

 

  1. Interest Deduction Limitation: The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 enacted an interest deduction limitation. For taxpayers where it was applicable, taxpayers with gross sales over $25MM, the interest deduction was limited to 30% of the adjusted taxable income. The bill now increases the limitation amount for 30% to 50% for tax years 2019 and 2020.
    1. VA Comment: This means a taxpayer that this limitation would apply to will be allowed more of an interest deduction.
  2. Technical correction for qualified Improvement Property: This bill corrected a prior law error.
    1. The Tax Cuts & Job Act (TCJA) removed investment barriers by allowing businesses to immediately deduct the cost of certain investments under a provision called 100% bonus depreciation.
    2. Due to legislative oversight, the law accidentally excluded improvements property to be eligible from 100% bonus depreciation.
    3. This bill corrects this error and thus the improvements would be eligible for bonus depreciation and should make this asset a 15-year recovery period.
  3. Foreign controlled corporation/shareholder:
    1. The bill is changing the US owned foreign corporation from 10% to 50%.
  4. Limitation of Paid Leave: Section 110(b)(2)(B) of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 is providing limitation. An employer shall not be required to pay more than $200 per day and a $10,000 in aggregate for each employee for paid leave under this section.

 

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  • Other Considerations:
    1. Lost Income/ Business Interruption insurance coverage: Our firm and clients have reviewed our insurance policies, and considered filing a claim for lost income or additional expense base on “Civil Authority”, in which the argument is that since the state government demanded the residents to stay at home, there has been some business interruption. In conversations with insurance brokers that the coverage is excluded for a “virus”. However, the argument is that the company didn’t close their business for a virus, as they probably didn’t close during influenza season, they closed because of the state government made a demand. As one can guess, lawsuits are already starting, so we are receiving information that if a business has lost of income or business interruption coverage, review your policy and consider filing a claim.
    2. You can review a lawsuit regarding this at https://www.insurancejournal.com/news/national/2020/03/19/561638.htm

 

Please read our memo dated March 17, 2020 and March 35, 2020 which were Versions 1 and 2. If you can’t find it, please contact us at advisors@verticaladvisors.com to request a copy or you can read it on our website at www.verticaladvisors.com under blogs.

Action Items:

  1. Get your information ready for a loan if you need it. We are expecting PPL loans to be processed quicker than other SBA loans. However, we don’t know yet. See the US Chamber of Commerce publication at https://www.google.com/search?q=us+chamber+of+commerce+coronavirus+emergency+loans&oq=us+chamber+of+&aqs=chrome.5.0l2j69i59j69i57j0l3j69i60.11468j0j4&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
  2. Keep sending us your tax information, as we still need to prepare all the returns before the 9/15/2020 and 10/15/2020 due dates.
  3. April 15, 2020 due dates have been delayed to July 15, 2020. If you need more time after that, and extension will need to be filed.
  4. 2019 taxes are due July 15, 2020, and 1st quarter estimated tax payments are due July 15, 2020. 2nd quarter ES payments are still due June 15, 2020.

 

 

  1. Consider amending 2018 and/or 2019 tax returns for the following:
    1. NOL’s: Now NOL’s from 2018 – 2020 can be carried back up to 5 years.
      1. VA Comment: The election to file a NOL for a 2018 and / or a tax return already filed much be by the extended due date of the 2019 tax return. So, if a 2018 tax return needs to be filed to benefit from the 2018 NOL, that return needs to be prepared and filed before the 2019 tax return if filed.
      2. VA Update: Currently, the CARES Act is stating that tax returns already filed, need to be amended within 120 days from the date of the CARES Act on March 27, 2020.
        1. For example, if your 2018 tax return had an NOL and it was carried forward, those tax returns need to be amended within 120 days from March 27, 2020.
        2. If a tax return has an NOL in 2018 through 2020, and they DON’T to carry back the NOL, the return needs to elect out on a timely return.
      3. Interest deduction limitations
      4. Business loss limitations
    2. Keep up to date with additional guidance on the CARES Act, as there are many areas that need continued guidance. The CARES Act does provide SBA the ability to regulate and within reason, create guidance on the Act.

Lastly, and as always, please contact us if you need assistance or have any questions.  Contact us at advisors@verticaladvisors.com

Update 4: Tax and Financial Update due to Coronavirus

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis has touched so many lives, with both illnesses and hardships. In response to this crisis, our office is working remotely on all accounting and tax projects. The best method to contact us is to email us at advisors@verticaladvisors.com. We are focused on staying up to date on the tax, accounting and finance updates to assist everyone with these challenges. The final Coronavirus bill that was signed by President Trump on March 27, 2020 is H.R. 748 called the CARES Act.  This passed bill was different than the Senate bill I wrote about on March 25, 2020.  Some provisions are the same or similar.

Based on new information reviewed and the discussions with our clients, I’m providing an update.

  1. Section 1102 Paycheck Protection Program Loans (PPL):
    1. This is a section 7(a) SBA loan
    2. VA Comment: Supposed to be a streamline process. When I speak with bankers, they advise that they are still waiting for guidance from SBA. See attached the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Coronavirus Emergency Loan Checklist.
    3. VA Update: look at https://home.treasury.gov/system/files/136/PPP–Fact-Sheet.pdf for information about the PPP loans.
      1. Apparently, small business can apply starting April 3, 2020. However, banks need to be prepared.  Most banks have sent out emails to their customer to begin compiling information regarding payroll, and health care costs.
      2. Starting April 10, 2020, independent contractors and self-employed individuals can apply.
        1. We are assuming the banks will want to look at and / or have the net self-employed income from your 2019 tax return or financial statements, and they may ask for 1099’s.
  1. VA Update: Based on additional information received from tax discussions, it seems as if a taxpayer can apply for BOTH a PPL and an EIDL, however, if they apply for both, the EIDL can’t be used for payroll, and the PPL is supposed to be used for payroll.
    1. Some businesses may need more money than just the PPL, so the EIDL will be required. Loans under $250,000 seems to require less information and no personal guarantee.
  2. Government guarantees 100% of the loan through December 31, 2020
    1. Guarantee drops to 75% for loans exceeding $150,000 and
    2. 85% for loans equal to or less than $150,000.
  • VA Comments: The Federal loan guarantee reduces at 12/31/2020, as I would expect that large portions of loans will be forgiven for payroll before 12/31/2020.
  1. Eligible businesses are small business (500 or less of employees), nonprofit, veteran’s organization or tribal businesses.
    1. Includes sole-proprietors, independent contractors, and self-employed individuals.
  2. VA Comment: Seems like most every business has been negatively affected from COVID-19 and if a business has payroll, they will apply for the PPL.

 

  1. How to Calculate the Loan Amount / Maximum Loan Amount:
    1. In summary, average monthly payroll from 2019 multiplied by 2.5.
    2. Sum of average total monthly payment by the applicant for payroll costs incurred during the 1-year period before the date on which the loan is made.
  • VA Comment: The current PPL application, just asks for “payroll costs” and the form doesn’t provide a definition of “payroll costs”, so we are suggesting looking at the summary of the bill that defines “payroll costs”. However, we have seen the banks asking for supporting information about “payroll costs”. These items are:
    1. 2019 Payroll, including the last 12 months
    2. 2019 Employees – 1099’s for 2019 employees and independent contractors that would otherwise be an employee of your business (Note: Do NOT include 1099s for services)
    3. Health care costs. All insurance premiums paid by the business owner under a group health plan.
    4. Retirement – your company retirement plan funding paid by the company.
  1. Some banks, like Bank of America, have stated that they are currently only going to provide PPL’s for customers that have deposit and lending relationships.
  2. Payroll Costs as defined in the bill.
    1. Payroll Costs Included:
      1. Salary, wage, commission, or similar compensation (not to exceed $100,000. So, if an employee earns $150,000 a year, the company can only use $100,000 a year for the calculation.)
      2. Payment of cash tip or equivalent
  • Payment for vacation, parental family, medical or sick leave
  1. Allowance for dismissal or separation
  2. Payment required for the provision of group health care benefits including insurance premiums.
  3. Payment of any retirement benefits; or
  • Payment of State or local tax assessed on the compensation of employees and
    1. Payroll can’t exceed more than $100,000 a year.
  • Self-employed , Sole Proprietor.
    1. The sum of payments of any compensation to or income of a sole proprietor or independent contractor that is wage, commission, income, net earnings from self-employment that isn’t more then $100,000.
    2. VA Comments: If you’re self-employed and you pay yourself with draws, then the banks will probably want to see 2019 1099-MISC and various expenses from your business. If you have employees, then you would calculate as discussed above. 
  1. Excluded Payroll Costs:
    1. An annual salary over $100,000 / year.
    2. Payroll taxes
  2. If a seasonal employer, there is an alternative calculation for an average 12-week period from February 15, 2019 and ending June 30, 2019.
  3. Multiplied by 2.5. NOT to Exceed $10MM
  4. VA Example: If average monthly payroll was $100,000, then multiple by 2.5 = $250,000.
  5. If the business was not in business from February 15, 2019 to June 30, 2019, there is another calculation.
  6. VA Comment: This loan calculation isn’t as rich as the senate proposed bill which was multiplied by 4. Also, the loan doesn’t seem to include payroll taxes for the employee or employer, so the loan seems to be just the net payroll. Not sure this will be a large enough loan for some small business. 

 

 

  1. Waives affiliation rules for businesses in hospitality and restaurant industries franchise.
    1. VA Comment: This means that restaurant chains that have over 500 employees can treat each location has an individual borrow and they don’t need to consolidate.
  2. Defines covered loan period as beginning on February 15, 2020 and ending on June 30, 2020.
  3. Established the maximum 7(a) loan amount to $10MM through December 31, 2020 and provides a formula by which the loan amount is tied to payroll costs incurred by the business to determine the size of the loan.
  4. Allowable use of the loan includes payroll support, such as employee salaries, paid sick or medical leave, insurance premiums, and mortgage, rent, and utility payments.
  5. Provides delegated authority which is the ability for lenders to make determination on borrowers eligibility and creditworthiness without going through all SBA’s channels to all current 7(a) lenders who make these loans to small business and provides the same authority to lenders who join the program and make these loans.
  6. Requires eligible borrowers to make a good faith certification that the loan is necessary due to the uncertainty of current economic conditions caused by COVID -19; they will use the funds to retain workers and maintain payroll. Lease and utility payments; and are not receiving duplicate funds for the same uses from another SBA program.
  7. Waives both borrower and lender fees for participation in the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP).
  8. Waives the credit elsewhere test for funds provided under this program.
  9. Waives collateral and personal guarantee requirements under this program.
  10. Any portion of the loan Not used for forgiveness purposes, the remaining loan balance will have a maturity of not more than 10 years, and the guarantee for that portion of the loan will remain intact.
  11. Maximum interest rate will be 4%.
  12. No prepayment fees.
  13. Allows complete deferment of 7(a) loan payments for at least six months and no more than a year.
  14. Increases SBA Express loan from $350,000 to $1MM through December 31, 2020.
  15. If head count reduces 25% or more, it will hurt the loan forgiveness, or make the loan not forgiven at all.

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  1. Section 1106 Loan Forgiveness:
    1. Borrower shall be eligible for loan forgiveness equal to the amount spent by borrower during an 8 week period after the origination date of the loan on payroll costs, interest payment on any mortgage incurred prior to February 15, 2020, payment of rent on any lease in force prior to February 15, 2020, and payment on any utility for which service began before February 15, 2020.
    2. The loan forgiveness seems to be only for PPL / PPP loans.
    3. Amount forgiven may not exceed the principal amount of the loan.
    4. Eligible payroll costs do not include compensation above $100,000 in wages.
    5. The amount forgiven will be reduced proportionally by any reduction in employees retained compared to the prior year and reduced by the reduction in pay of any employee beyond 25% of their prior year compensation.
    6. Loan forgiveness / cancellation will not be included in borrower’s taxable income.
    7. VA Update: We are reading that Treasury is now stating that 75% or more of the loan forgiveness needs to be for payroll. Thus, no more than 25% of the loan forgiveness can be for non-payroll.
  2. Section 1110 Emergency EIDL (Economic Injury Disaster Loan) Grant:
    1. Allocated $10B in funding for EIDL.
    2. Provides an advance of $10,000 to small business and non-profits that apply for SBA EIDL loans within three days of applying for the loan.
    3. Expands eligibility for access to EIDL’s to include tribal business, cooperatives and ESOP’s with fewer than 500 employees or any individual operating as a sole proprietor or independent contractor during the covered period (January 31, 2020 to December 31, 2020. Private non-profits are also eligible for both grants and EIDL’s.
    4. EIDL’s are loans up to $2MM that carry interest rates up to 3.75% for companies and up to 2.75% for nonprofits as well as principal and interest deferment up to 4 years.
    5. The loans may be used for expenses that could have been met had the disaster not occurred, including payroll and other operating expenses.
    6. The EIDL grant does not need to be repaid, even if the grantee is subsequently denied an EIDL.
    7. It may be used to provide paid sick leave to employees, maintain payroll, meet increased production costs due to supply chain disruption or pay business obligations, including debts, rent and mortgage payments.
      1. VA Update: If a business needs more money than they can get from the PPL, then they can apply for an EIDL for items other than payroll which the PPL would be used for.
    8. Eligible grant recipients must have been in operation on January 31, 2020.
    9. The business that received an EIDL between January 31, 2020 and June 30, 2020 as a result of COVID-19 disaster declaration, is eligible to apply for a PPP loan, or the business may refinance their EIDL into a PPP loan.
    10. Typically, the $10,000 grant would be subtracted from the amount forgiven in the payroll protection plan.
    11. Waived personal guarantee on advances and loans not exceeding $200,000.
    12. The approval should be based on solely on the credit score of the applicant and no requirement for tax returns or tax return transcripts.
    13. VA Update: For loans over $250,000, there seems to be more underwriting requirements. May require financial statements, and tax returns.  However, we haven’t heard or seen if these rules are being applied. 

Most of the financial assistance offered through the first bill called, HR 6201, FAMILIES FIRST CORONRAVIRUS RESPONSE ACT (discussed on our previous memo), and the CARES Act S. 3548 which concluded as HR 748 was included in my discussion below.

The tax and financial laws are changing daily, therefore I marked this memo with “V4” (version 4) on my memo above. There are various other social service updates, but our memos will focus mainly on finance, business and tax updates.

  1. Highlights of the PROPOSED SENATE BILL S 3548, CORONAVIRUS AID, RELIEF AND ECONOMIC SECURITY ACT OR THE CARES ACT. March 19, 2020. This bill has NOT been passed in the Senate at this time, so it can change, and then the bill would need to go to the House and to the President. You can view the at https://www.congress.gov, search for HR 748.
    1. Businesses & Other Employers:
      1. Retention payroll tax credit for eligible employers that continue to pay employee wages while their operations are fully or partially suspended as a result of certain COVID-19 related government orders. A 50% refundable payroll tax credit on wages paid up to $10,000 during the crisis. The credit is available for employees retained by not currently working due to the crises for firms with more than 100 employees and for all employee wages for firms with 100 or fewer employees.

 

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  1. Delayed Employer-side Social Security payroll tax payments may be delayed until January 1, 2021 with 50% owned on December 31, 2021 and the other half due on December 31, 2022. Deferral of employer portion of payments for certain payroll taxes.
  2. Net Operating Losses: Modification of net operating loss (NOL) and limitation rules. Will allow most NOL’s incurred in 2018, 2019, and 2020 to carry them back for refunds to 5 years. This carry back law was exempt for tax years beginning 2018 under the TCJA, but the CARE Act reverses it. Due to this financial crisis they are allowing NOL carry backs for these periods to be carried back. The Act also removed the 80% utilization of NOL’s for a carry forward, meaning an NOL could only reduce taxable income by 80%.
  3. Business Interest Deduction: Modification of the deduction limitation on business interest rules of IRC section 163(j). The law temporarily changes the business interest deduction limit from 30% to 50% for tax years 2019 and 2020.
  4. Qualified improvement property technical correction, allowing qualifying interior improvements of buildings to be immediately expensed (bonus depreciation or Section 179) rather than depreciated over 15 years for 2018 and future.
  5. Payroll tax credit for eligible employers up to 50% refundable payroll tax credit on wages paid up to $10,000 during the crisis. The credit would be available to employers whose business were disrupted and retained employees, but they were not able to work. Employers with more than 100 employees and under 100 employees have slightly different calculations.
  6. Business Loss Limitation Revision: For years after 12/31/2017, the business loss limitation is suspended. Previously, business losses couldn’t be used to offset non-business income (like wages, investment income) over $250,000 for individuals or $500,000 for married filing jointly.
    1. VA Comments: For individuals that have business losses, and perhaps real estate losses from being a real estate professional, this law change may make it desirable to amend the 2018 tax return. 

 

 

  1. Individuals:
    1. Recovery rebates of up to $1,200 for single and $2,400 for married couples filing jointly, plus $500 per qualifying child. Phaseouts of the rebates are based on adjusted gross income (AGI) starting at $75k for single, and $150k for married couples.
      1. The rebates phase out at $99,999 for single and $199,000.
    2. Expansion of unemployment benefits, including self-employed, and gig-economy workers. Unemployment insurance to include an additional $600 / week for an additional 13 weeks.
    3. Waiver of the 10% penalty for COVID-19 related early distributions from IRAs, 401K and other retirement plans. However, taxability of the distribution will need to be considered.
    4. Exclusion of certain employer payments of student loans up to $5,250 will not be treated as taxable income to the employee.
    5. Temporary Relief Federal Student Loan: Deferral of student loan payments on principal and interest for 6 months through September 30, 2020.
  2. Other Items:
    1. Forbearance of Residential Mortgage Loan Payments (section 4023): Provides up to 90 days of forbearance for multifamily borrowers with a federally backed multifamily mortgage loan who have experienced a financial hardship. Borrowers receiving forbearance may not evict or charge late fees to tenants for the duration of the forbearance period.
      1. Applicable mortgages include loans to real property designed for 5 or more families that are purchased, insured, or assisted by Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, or HUD.

 

The CARES Act Has Passed: Here Are The Highlights

  1. Additional Information regarding HR 748 CARES ACT ,
    1. Relief for Individuals, Families, and Businesses. Rebates and Other individual Provisions.
      1. Eligible individuals shall be allowed as credit against the tax for the first taxable year beginning in 2020 an amount equal to the lesser of:
        1. Net income tax liability, or
        2. $1,200 ($2,400 in the case of joint returns)
          1. The credit should not be less than $600
          2. $500 per qualifying children
        3. Eligible individuals are based on adjusted gross income (AGI) of
          1. $75,000 and $150,000 in the case of a joint return. Once a taxpayer AGI is either $75k or $150k the credit begins to be reduced and phased out.  The phase out is $99k and $198k.
        4. Delay in filing deadlines. In the case for returns for tax year 2019, due dates for April 15, 2020, are delayed to July 15, 2020. This isn’t in the HR 748 bill, but it is noted in IRS Notice 2020-18. An extension is not required. There is an automatic extension till July 15, 2020. However, if the tax return can’t be filed by July 15, 2020, an extension will need to be filed.
          1. This means that IRA, HAS and MSA contributions are extended to July 15, 2020 also.
        5. Individual ES Payments: Different from the Senate bill, 1st quarter estimated tax payments are delayed and due on July 15, 2020. 2nd quarter estimated tax payments are still due on June 15, 2020.  This is stated on IRS Notice 2020-18 and Notice 2020-20.
          1. You can read about these due date extensions at:

https://www.irs.gov/newsroom/filing-and-payment-deadlines-questions-and-answers

  1. Retirement Accounts: Early withdrawal penalties under IRC section 72(t) which is typically 10% for Federal and then some states add a lower penalty are waived if the early distributions are $100,000 or under.
    1. Amounts distributed may be paid back. There is also a provision that allows taxpayers that took early distributions to make one or more contributions over a three-year period to contribute up to the amount of distributions they took.
    2. Income inclusion of premature distribution. A taxpayer can spread the taxability of the premature distribution over 3 years.
  2. Loans from retirement plans: The bill allows for an increase in loans and not to be treated as distributions. The loan amount is increased from $50,000 to $100,000.
    1. Loan repayments will be delayed by 1 year.
  3. Charitable Contributions: The allowance to deduct more charitable donations have been increased for both individuals and Corporations.
    1. VA Comments: Seems as if the individual 30% / 50% AGI limitation is temporary suspended. The 10% limitation for C Corporations seem to be increased to 25%.   
  4. Student Loan Temporary Relief: The bill states the Secretary shall suspend all payments due for loans under part D of title IV for Higher Education Act of 1965 for 3 months.
  1. Business Provisions:
    1. C Corporation estimated tax payments. Delay of estimated tax payments for Corporations. Like individuals, the required estimated tax payments for C Corporation is delayed till July 15, 2020.
    2. Delay in Payment of Employer Payroll Taxes. The bill states that employers can delay payment of the employer portion of payroll taxes till December 31, 2021 for 50% of the deferral and the balance due on December 31, 2022. This also applies to the estimated payroll deposits.
      1. VA Comment: If a small business is going to request and receive a loan for payroll and overhead, this deferral might not be necessary. If a defer is desired, a liability should be posted on the companies’ financial statements.
    3. Net Operating Loss (NOL) Carrybacks: The NOL carry back was removed for tax years after 12/31/2017. This bill will allow NOL’s generated from year 2018, 2019, and 2020 to carry back and request a refund for up to a 5 year carry back period. The 80% limitation is removed also.
      1. VA Comment: If you incurred a loss in 2018 or 2019, or expect a loss in 2020, please get us the information and quickly as possible so we can begin preparation of a NOL carryback. If your tax return had qualified improvement property and the return couldn’t take the deduction, this new bill corrects that prior error and that deduction might generate a taxable loss for a NOL carryback. 
    4. A taxpayer may elect out of the 5-year NOL carry back. If elected, it can’t be changed. It is irrevocable.
      1. VA Comment: For tax returns with NOL’s for 2018 or 2019 that have been filed, the return needs to be amended within 120 days from the enactment of this bill regarding the NOL carryback provision.
    5. Loss limitation for taxpayers other than Corporations: IRC section 461(l)(2) was added by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 and was effective for tax years 2018 to 2025 which disallowed any excess business loss for a non-corporate taxpayer. Generally, the law prohibited business losses to only be deducted against no more than $250,000 / $500,000 of non-business income. Any non-deductible business loss was carried forward. The bill removes those limits from being implemented till December 31, 2020 (previously applied on December 31, 2017).
      1. VA Comment: We know this loss limitation occurred with some of our clients, and we will have to review affected taxpayers to ask them if they want us to amend their tax returns. The IRS will need to provide guidance on the amendment process.
    6. Interest Deduction Limitation: The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 enacted an interest deduction limitation. For taxpayers where it was applicable, taxpayers with gross sales over $25MM, the interest deduction was limited to 30% of the adjusted taxable income. The bill now increases the limitation amount for 30% to 50% for tax years 2019 and 2020.
      1. VA Comment: This means a taxpayer that this limitation would apply to will be allowed more of an interest deduction.
    7. Technical correction for qualified Improvement Property: This bill corrected a prior law error.
      1. The Tax Cuts & Job Act (TCJA) removed investment barriers by allowing businesses to immediately deduct the cost of certain investments under a provision called 100% bonus depreciation.
      2. Due to legislative oversight, the law accidentally excluded improvements property to be eligible from 100% bonus depreciation.
      3. This bill corrects this error and thus the improvements would be eligible for bonus depreciation and should make this asset a 15-year recovery period.
    8. Foreign controlled corporation/shareholder:
      1. The bill is changing the US owned foreign corporation from 10% to 50%.
    9. Limitation of Paid Leave: Section 110(b)(2)(B) of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 is providing limitation. An employer shall not be required to pay more than $200 per day and a $10,000 in aggregate for each employee for paid leave under this section.
  • Other Considerations:
    1. Lost Income/ Business Interruption insurance coverage: Our firm and clients have reviewed our insurance policies, and considered filing a claim for lost income or additional expense base on “Civil Authority”, in which the argument is that since the state government demanded the residents to stay at home, there has been some business interruption. In conversations with insurance brokers that the coverage is excluded for a “virus”. However, the argument is that the company didn’t close their business for a virus, as they probably didn’t close during influenza season, they closed because of the state government made a demand. As one can guess, lawsuits are already starting, so we are receiving information that if a business has lost of income or business interruption coverage, review your policy and consider filing a claim.
    2. You can review a lawsuit regarding this at https://www.insurancejournal.com/news/national/2020/03/19/561638.htm

 

Please read our earlier memos dated March 17, 2020, March 25, 2020, and March 30, 2020, which were Versions 1 through 3. If you can’t find it, please contact us at advisors@verticaladvisors.com to request a copy or you can read it on our website at www.verticaladvisors.com under blogs.

Action Items:

  1. Get your information ready for a loan if you need it. We are expecting PPL loans to be processed quicker than other SBA loans. However, we don’t know yet. See the US Chamber of Commerce publication at https://www.google.com/search?q=us+chamber+of+commerce+coronavirus+emergency+loans&oq=us+chamber+of+&aqs=chrome.5.0l2j69i59j69i57j0l3j69i60.11468j0j4&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8
  2. Keep sending us your tax information, as we still need to prepare all the returns before the 9/15/2020 and 10/15/2020 due dates.
  3. April 15, 2020 due dates have been delayed to July 15, 2020. If you need more time after that, and extension will need to be filed.
  4. 2019 taxes are due July 15, 2020, and 1st quarter estimated tax payments are due July 15, 2020. 2nd quarter ES payments are still due June 15, 2020.
  5. Consider amending 2018 and/or 2019 tax returns for the following:
    1. NOL’s: Now NOL’s from 2018 – 2020 can be carried back up to 5 years.
      1. VA Comment: The election to file a NOL for a 2018 and / or a tax return already filed much be by the extended due date of the 2019 tax return. So, if a 2018 tax return needs to be filed to benefit from the 2018 NOL, that return needs to be prepared and filed before the 2019 tax return if filed.
    2. Interest deduction limitations
    3. Business loss limitations

Lastly, and as always, please contact us if you need assistance or have any questions.  Contact us at advisors@verticaladvisors.com

SBA offering loans to small businesses hit hard by COVID-19

Every company has faced unprecedented challenges in adjusting to life following the widespread outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19). Small businesses face particular difficulties in that, by definition, their resources — human, capital and otherwise — are limited. If this describes your company, one place you can look to for some assistance is the Small Business Administration (SBA).

New loan, relaxed criteria

The agency has announced that it’s offering Economic Injury Disaster Loans under the Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act, which was recently signed into law.

Here’s how it works: The governor of a state or territory must first submit a request for Economic Injury Disaster Loan assistance to the SBA. The agency’s Office of Disaster Assistance then works with the governor to approve the request. Upon completion of this process, affected small businesses within the state gain access to information on how to apply for loan assistance.

To speed the process, the SBA has relaxed its usual disaster-loan criteria. A state or territory now needs to certify that at least five small businesses have suffered substantial economic injury anywhere in the state. Previously, at least one of the companies had to be in each of the disaster-declared counties or parishes.

Along similar lines, once the submission process is completed, Economic Injury Disaster Loans will be available across the state. Under previous criteria, only businesses in counties identified as disaster areas could obtain financial assistance. Given the expected widespread and economically drastic effect of the coronavirus, most states will have likely garnered approval by the time you read this.

Amount, interest and terms

Economic Injury Disaster Loans offer up to $2 million in financial assistance to help small businesses mitigate their revenue losses. You could use the money to pay overhead costs such as utilities and rent, keep up with accounts payable and cover payroll.

For qualifying small businesses, the interest rate is 3.75%. Some nonprofits may also be eligible for this assistance. For them, the interest rate is 2.75%. The specific loan terms will vary according to each borrower’s ability to pay. The agency does say that it “offers loans with long-term repayments in order to keep payments affordable.”

Mitigate and manage

Bear in mind that these loans are just one form of assistance offered by the SBA. Your small business may qualify for other loans, and there might be training programs that benefit your company. Our firm can help you assess your financial situation in light of the coronavirus crisis and formulate a strategy for mitigating and managing your risks going forward.

© 2020